A common definition of the energy value of food is the amount of energy released
by the burning of the three main food groups (carbohydrates, fats & proteins) in
the human body.
The energy value is calculated using the conversion factors and is expressed in
kilojoules (kJ) and kilocalories (kcal) per 100 g or per 100 ml.
Fats are a class of macronutrients with high energy value (9 kcal / g). Fats
provide more than twice the calories contained in an equivalent amount of
carbohydrates or protein (4 kcal/g each). Due to its high calorie content, the
consumption of many fats makes it easier to meet the total calorie needs. Fats
are divided into saturated and unsaturated, saturated are those whose chemical
compound has no double bond between carbon atoms, while unsaturated are
those whose chemical compound consists of one (monounsaturated), or more
(polyunsaturated) double bonds.
Carbohydrates are macronutrients found in some foods and beverages and are
made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. Sugars, starch and
fiber are carbohydrates. The words "total carbohydrates" on the food label refer
to a combination of all three types. The digestive system breaks down
carbohydrates into glucose or blood sugar. The bloodstream absorbs glucose
and uses it as energy to supply the body.
Proteins are used by our cells to build, repair and maintain our muscles, organs
and glands and boost our immune system. The construction of proteins in our
body involves a complex combination of amino acid chains.
The body can produce 13 of the required amino acids, which are considered non-
essential amino acids, as we do not need to get them from our diet. There are 9
amino acids that we can not produce that should be obtained through the foods
we eat daily and these are considered to be the essential amino acids.
We need to have at least 20 amino acids for the synthesis of proteins in our body,
we use food to secure the extra proteins. Thus, the protein provided by a food is
classified as either complete or incomplete protein.
A food full of protein provides all the essential amino acids that are essential for
the body. Foods that are considered full-protein include beef, lamb, pork, poultry,
cheese, eggs, fish and milk.
Foods that do not provide all the essential amino acids contain lean protein (plant
foods), which includes whole grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
Combining both lean protein foods with complete protein foods will allow the body
to receive the essential amino acids needed daily.
Salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine (NaCl). Salt is usually
added to foods to improve the taste, but it is also used in food preservation.
Sodium in salt is a key mineral for controlling water levels in the body. It is also
required for the function of nerves and muscles. However, too much salt can
contribute to high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for heart disease.
The following nutrients may be optionally listed on the nutrition declaration:
Starch chemically belongs to the polysaccharides. It consists of tens of
thousands of molecules of glucose and is an important component of the human
diet. It is an odorless, tasteless white substance that is widely found in plant
tissue and is obtained mainly from cereals and potatoes.
Edible fibers are carbohydrate polymers with three or more monomers, which are
not digested or absorbed by the small intestine of the human body. Studies have
shown that dietary fiber contributes to the proper functioning of the digestive
system, cholesterol control, lowering blood pressure and improving blood sugar
Οι βιταμίνες είναι οργανικές ουσίες που είναι απαραίτητες σε μικρές ποσότητες
για φυσιολογική υγεία και ανάπτυξη.
MATERIALS IN CONTACT WITH FOOD
According to article 25 of the Food and Beverage Code and ISO 7086-2: 2000
the quantities of lead and cadmium released from ceramic or glass objects must
not exceed specific limits per category.
ARAL has been an accredited laboratory since 2012 in determining the release of
lead and cadmium in glass and ceramic objects. In addition, guidance is provided to the customer regarding the correct
completion of the Declaration of Conformity that accompanies the ceramic
articles in accordance with Annex III of Directive 84/500 / EEC as amended and
Food security is a high priority issue for sustainable global development. In recent
decades, the negative effects of contaminants on crop quality have threatened
both food safety and human health. Heavy metals (eg Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr)
can disrupt human metabolism, usually with indirect negative effects.
According to Regulation 1881/2006 / EU they have set maximum permissible
limits for the concentrations of heavy metals in various types of food.
ARAL applies international and recognized methods for the determination of
heavy metals in food.
Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic substances found in nature.
Aflatoxins are produced by fungi (mold), which grow mainly on dried fruits, nuts
(especially peanuts and almonds), spices, grains and cheeses, when there are
suitable humidity and temperature conditions. They can also occur in the milk of
animals that have been fed with feed (corn, etc.), in which fungi (fungal, mold)
According to Regulation 1881/2006 / EU they have set maximum permissible
levels of aflatoxin concentrations in various types of food.
It is accepted that the largest amount of microorganisms we receive through the
consumption of food. Microorganisms can simply be transported through food,
but in most cases they use food as a substrate and multiply using their metabolic
potential as degraders. The increase of microorganisms in food usually leads to
changes in the composition of food due to the consumption of their ingredients
and the production of microbial variables resulting in changes in their
organoleptic properties, alterations and degradation of their quality. In fact, if
some of the growing microorganisms are pathogenic or secrete toxic compounds
then the food ceases to be safe.
Also if the nature of the food makes it vulnerable to the growth of
microorganisms, whether or not it is subject to some treatment that limits its
microflora and even if the whole processing, storage, transport can cause
To control the food, continuous microbiological analyses are performed at various
stages of the production of the final product. The use of microbiological criteria
can check both the final quality / safety of a food and the process followed (if
good industrial practices are used, if the method of removal of microorganisms is
effective, etc.). Different microbiological criteria are established at each stage of
production per food category to ensure that food is safe, of good quality and will
remain so until the end of its life.
The sample to be tested must be representative, and the characteristics of the
batch should be preserved. By batch we mean a group or set of identifiable
products which are obtained by a given process under practically the same
conditions and produced in a given place within a specified production period.
The selection of the sample from a batch should be random and the quantity
must be sufficient for the requested analysis. In case the requested analyses are
chemical and microbiological, it is preferable to send different packages for each
sector. Samples should be refrigerated in easily perishable foods (eg meat) and
at room temperature when stable (eg cereals).