The first step for the overall image of any crop is soil analysis. It is important because it gives all the necessary information about the available nutrients that exist in the soil and it’s an indicator for the quality of the soil and the needs for soil improvement depending on the crop.

The standard soil analysis includes:

Soil pH is a unit of measurement of soil acidity or alkalinity. The pH affects the availability of nutrients, the chemical properties and the suitability of the soil for specific crops.
Electrical conductivity indicates whether a soil contains a large amount of salts. Soils with high salt content create problems as they make a barrier to the plant to absorb water and nutrients which hold back the development of the crop. On the contrary, low conductivity is desirable, as it benefits the assimilation of water and nutrients.
Nitrogen is the main nutrient for controlling the growth and fruiting of trees as it plays a key role in photosynthesis and other essential biological processes of plants for the production of proteins, vitamins and nucleic acids.
Phosphorus is one of the main nutrients for agricultural production because it plays an important role in metabolism and root system development.
Potassium is also one of the main nutrients because it participates in many activities of the plant, as well as contributes to increasing the plant's resistance to various diseases. Potassium is essential for plants and is a key ingredient to have quality fruits with nice color and rich taste.
Magnesium is an essential element for plants to have healthy and green foliage, as it plays an important role in basic plant functions, such as photosynthesis.
The main role of calcium is to ensure the creation of strong cell walls in plants. At the same time, it helps the crops to have good growth and quality production.
Trace elements are the nutrients that plants need in small quantities and play an important role in the formation of healthy foliage, flowering and quality production. The trace elements are iron, copper, manganese, zinc and boron.
The soil texture gives the information about physicochemical properties, such as water holding capacity, soil aeration, aggregation, and ion exchange capacity. These properties depend on the size distribution of the soil grains when passing through a sieve with a diameter of 2mm holes. The classification of the grains is divided into three categories: sand, silt and clay. The ratio of these shows the soil texture.
Soil organic matter refers to the organic components of the soil, which include any plant or animal residue that returns or remains in the soil and is subject to degradation processes. It is one of the most important components of soil because it affects the ability to retain water and nutrients, structure, infiltration capacity, soil biodiversity, porosity, and nutrient availability.
The presence of calcium carbonate mainly in calcareous soils significantly affects their chemical and physical properties, as well as their fertility. Active calcium carbonate is the finely divided calcium carbonate and its measurement gives us the percentage of calcium carbonate that is responsible for the effects of carbonate on crop yields and physiological abnormalities.
For trees and vines the most suitable period for soil analysis is before winter fertilization.
The correct sampling is essential because it contributes to an environmentally responsible fertigation program (the right type of fertilizer, in the right proportion, at the right time for the needs of the crop, and the right spot).
Just prior to the installation of a new crop, it is proposed to analyze the soil at 3 depths, 0-30, 30-60 & 60-90 cm. For existing crops the recommended depths are 0- 30 & 30-60 cm.
A soil shovel, a clean bucket and a bag are needed for soil sampling. From fifteen different points in an imaginary zic zac, at the appropriate depth, you collect the soil in a bag, mix it very well and send one kilo of the mixed soil to the laboratory. It is pointed out that it concerns an area of ​​5-10 acres, if the field is larger more than one sample needs to be sent to the laboratory.
If in a field the cultivation or fertilization or calcium carbonate content has not been applied evenly, then a separate sample should be taken from each management area. If the soil areas in a field have a different appearance eg slope, drainage, color or texture, then each area must be sampled separately.
The ideal sampling period is at least 2 months before planting or application of fertilizers.


Foliar diagnostic analysis is a chemical analysis of leaves, where their nutrient content is determined in order to assess the nutritional status of the plant. The results of the leaf diagnostic test assess the plant's ability to absorb nutrients. The main advantages of control are the evaluation of fertilization and the prevention of deficiencies. In combination with soil analysis, a complete picture of the nutritional status of the crops is provided, and the diagnosis is facilitated to identify the problem.

The standard leaf analysis includes:

Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Borum (B)

The appropriate period depends on the plant. For olives it is the winter and spring months, while for citrus it is in September and October, for the rest of the plants it is July and August.

For lead analysis, healthy middle-aged leaves are cut, 50 in total per 3 acres. Avoid collecting leaves when they are freshly fertilized and when the plants are in adverse conditions. Wrap the leaves you have collected in paper (e.g. newspaper, kitchen paper) and send them as soon as possible for analysis.

For more information contact our laboratory.


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